Haemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis Transplantation Renal Institutions Physiology + Other
1550BC   Ebers papyrus; first description of peritoneal cavity      
c500BC Greeks and Romans recommended hot baths to sweat out toxins, and remove urea   Sushruta (Indian physician); developed plastic surgical transplant techniques for reconstructing noses, earlobes etc   Athansios Diamondopoulus; has summarised the early Greek history
1527         Paracelsus; added wine and vinegar to urine, and found that some urines curdle and produce a milky precipitate
1673         Frederick Dekkers (Leiden); first described coagulability of urine on boiling
1722         Theodore Zwinger III (Basel); one of first descriptions of nephrotic syndrome in his Paedoiatreia practica of 1722
1743   Christopher Warrick, Rev Stephen Hales (UK); peritoneal lavage for patient with ascites      

Domenico Cotugno (Naples); first described a 28 year old dropsical soldier with coagulable urine, fever and oedema

Rosen von Rosenstein (Upsala, Sweden); noted that scarlatina could be followed by 'dropsy' (fluid overload) and bloody urine; first description of acute nephritis

1798         Wiiliam Cruickshank (London); noted urine of some dropsical patients could be coagulated by nitrous acid or heat
1803         John Bostock (London); quantified the amount of albumin in urine by evaporation
1806-11         William Charles Wells (London); first systematic description of (78) cases of the dropsy and proteinuria; noting at autopsy, hard thick cortices in one patient, and abnormal large and soft kidneys in another​
1813         John Blackwell (Exeter); publihsed 'Observations on the Nature and Cure of Dropsies';describing various groups of patients with oedema and coagulable urine
1823     Carl Bunger (Germany); first recorded transplant in 'modern' era; performed plastic surgery on woman's nose, grafting skin from her thigh    
1827-1842         Richard Bright (London); first to recognise that albuminuria in presence of oedema meant kidney disease; publishes his important book, 'Reports of Medical Cases'
1837         Gabriel Valentin (Swiss-German); invented the double bladed knife, allowing the cutting of thin sections for examination (unstained) under microscopy; and described casts in the urine

Pierre-Francois Olive Rayer (Paris); first described renal vein thrombosis, renal anaemia, and a classification system that distinguished acute nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and pyelonephritis; and introduced urine microscopy into medical practice

1842         Carl Ludwig (Leipzig, Germany); first proposed that urine was filtered by the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the renal tubules
1851         Friedrich von Frerichs (Germany); described various pathological changes seen in the evolution of one kidney disease

 - Gottlieb Gruges (Germany); published 'Atlas of Pathological Histology'; noted '"inflammatory globules" on renal microscopy, and concluded they represented inflammation of the Malpighian Bodies (glomeruli); ie described different types of glomerulonephritis
 - Samuel Wilks; suggested that hypertension could occur de novo with normal kidneys

1854 Thomas Graham (Glasgow); first described osmotic force        
1855 Adolf Fick (Germany); published quantitative description of diffusion        
1858         Heymann; described optic changes of accelerated hypertension
1860         Jacob Henle (Germany); first observation of the loop arrangement of the medullary tubules (Loop of Henle)
1861 Thomas Graham (Glasgow); process of dialysis first described        
1862   Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen (Würzburg/Strassburg); first described the peritoneum's cellular composition      
1863     Paul Bert (France); demonstrated that tissues transplanted from one person to another are rejected    
1865         Thomas Hillier (London); first cutaneous nephrostomy
1870         Edwin Klebs; coined the phrase 'glomerulonephritis'
1872         William Gull and Henry Sutton (London); hypertension ("arteriocapillary fibrosis") was the cause rather than the consequence of renal disease
1874         Frederick Akbar Mahomed (London); published 'The Etiology of Bright's Dsease and the Prealbuminuric Stage'; ie, believed all cases of nephritis went through a prealbuminuric stage
1877   Wegman; conducted experiments using peritoneal lavage in animals      
1879         Theodr Langhans; noted glomerular hypercellularity in glomerulonephritis
1880 John Berry Haycraft (Birmingham/Edinburgh); first derived hirudin (an anticoagulant) from leeches        
1881         Eugen Hahn (Berlin); first renal biopsy as part of nephropexy
1883         Rudolph Heidenheim (Breslau, Germany); concluded the principal urinary transport process was in the proximal tubule
1893     Bartolomeo Gosio (Rome); discovered Mycophenolic acid (MPA); a fungal metabolite discovered as an antibiotic against anthrax bacillus, Bacillus anthracis    
1894         Leopold Casper (Berlin); first ureteric cystscope
1895     Julius Dorfler (Germany); first developed full thickness blood vessel suturing technique    
1896     Mathieu Jaboulay and E Braiu (Lyon); further developed full thickness blood vessel suturing technique    
1897         Achard and Castaigne; first to develop a dye excretion test; noted that the excretion of injected methylene blue was delayed in patients with renal failure, but normal in other oedematous states
1898         Robert Tigerstedt and Per Bergmann; isolated a pressor substance from the kindeys they called 'rennin'
1901     Karl Landsteiner (Vienna); classifies blood type into three groups A, B and O; his colleagues adds a fourth AB    
1902      - Emerich Ullmann (Vienna); first experimental transplant (autotransplant in a dog), lasted 5 days. He then carried out the first xenotransplant (dog-to-goat), and first two human transplants (pig and goat to human), all unsucessful
 - Alexis Carrel (Lyon) and Charles Guthrie; further developed methods of joining blood vessels, making transplantation possible
1903     Carl Jensen (Denmark); discovers that the immune system responsible for tissue rejection    
1905     M Princeteau (Bordeaux, France); inserted slices of rabbit kidney into a nephrotomy in a child    - Friedrich von Muller (Germany); a pathologist, introduced the term ‘Nephrosis’
 - Fritz Voelcker and Alexander von Lichtenberg (Heidelberg, Germany); first retrograde pyeloigraphy; used colloidal silver but later found to be toxic
1906     Mathieu Jaboulay (Lyon); xenotransplant of the left kidney of a pig into the left elbow of a woman    
1910     Ernst Unger (Berlin); implanted a pair of monkey kidneys into a human   Ambard (France); devleoped the 'Ambard Coefficent', a complex relationship between the blood and plasma urea, with a correction for urine flow
1913 John Abel, Leonard Rowntree, BB Turner (Baltimore, USA); first to describe in vivo haemodialysis of rabbits (removing salicylic acid), dogs (and later a 400 ml blood exchange in a human) with the first artificial kidney made of collodion and using hirudin anticoagulant        
1914         Franz Volhard and Theodor Fahr; in their famous monograph on Bright's Disease, noted that nephrosclerosis could run two courses; one 'benign', one 'malignant', subsequently renamed 'malignant hypertension' by Keith, Wagner and Kernohan (1928)

Jay MacLean, William Henry Howell (Baltimore, USA); Jay Maclean, a second year medical student, first isolated the anti-coagulant heparin from dog livers

1923 Heinrich Necheles (Hamburg); first flat plate dialyser; a 'sandwich' biological membrane consisting of calves' peritoneal membrane and dialyses dogs George Ganter; first human peritoneal dialysis for renal failure Harold Neuhof (Mount Sinai, New York); transplanted (unsuccessfully) a lamb kidney into a patient   - Norman Gywn (Toronto); first open renal biopsy
 - Rowntree; reported bthat iodinated dyes could be used for intravenous pyelography
 - Pauli; introduced magnetic resonance imaging
1924 George Haas (Giessen, near Frankfurt); first human dialysis        
1926-1934         Harry Goldblatt; carried out his famous experiments that showed by clamping the renal artery, hypertension was induced
1927         Antonio Egas Moniz (Lisbon); introduced cerebral arteriography, later used for renal arteries
1929          - Reynaldo Cid dos Santos (Lisbon); first aortogram (including renal arteries)
 - Hounsfield; introduced computed tomography

 - Thomas Addis (Stamford, USA); published (with Jean Oliver) his classic 'The Renal Lesions in Bright's Disease'; first to standardise the technique for the quantitaive examination of the urinary sediment - the Addis Count; built on the work of Ambard (see 1910), using modifications of the urine/plasma urea ratio, a direct precursor to the urea clearance concept, as conceptualised by George Barnett in 1920
 - Louis Leiter (New York); coined the term 'nephrotic syndrome'

1933     Yuri Voronoy (Kherson, Ukraine); first human homograft (human- to-human; deceased donor)    
1934         Robert Ball (Tenneessee); first aspiration renal biopsy
1936     Peter Gorer (UK); described the Major Histocompatibilty Complex (MHC) in the mouse    
1937 William Thalhimer (Baltimore, USA); used cellophane dialyser and heparin together        
1938 Wilhem Kolff; used in vitro dialysis to remove urea from blood John Wear, Eli Sisk, AJ Trinkle (Wisconsin); first successful PD      
1940 Gordon Murray (Toronto); used heparin for the first time in human patients        
1940s         Thomas Addis (Stamford, USA); advocated using serum creatinine as a clinical indicator of renal function; about the same time as inulin clearance was introduced by Benjamin Miller
1941         - Eric Bywaters and D Beall (Hammersmith, London); description of crush injury; one of first descriptions of AKI
 - Freeman S, Freeman WMC; Aluminium Hydroxide first used as phosphate binder in renal failure
1942         Dussik; introduced renal ultrasonography
1943 Wilhem Kolff and Hendrik Berk (Kampen, Netherlands); rotating drum dialyser, the first practical dialyser   Sir Peter Medawar, Tom Gibson (Glasgow); reports rejection of a transplant is based on immunological factors    
1944         Nils Alwall (Lund, Sweden); first series of aspiration renal biopsies (published 1952)
1945     Charles Hufnagel, Ernest Landsteiner, David Hume (Boston); first successful deceased donor transplant in a patient with AKI; performed outside recipient's body    
1946  - Gordon Murray (Dec '46, Toronto); first successful HD in N America
 - Nils Alwall (Lund, Sweden); first coil dialysers
Howard Frank, Arnold Seligman, Jacob Fine (Boston); Ronald Reid (UK); Pierre Tanret (Paris); Kop (Netherlands); AKI treatment by PD      
1946-7 Eric Bywaters and Adolf Marcus 'Jo' Joekes (Hammersmith, London); Michael Darmady (Portsmouth); first HD for AKI in UK        
1947 Russell Palmer (Sept '47, Vancouver); first successful HD in N America using Kolff dialyser        

 - Nils Alwall (Lund, Sweden); developed AV shunt
 - Leonard Skeggs, Jack Leonards; flat plate, parallel flow dialyser, utilised countercurrent flow (blood and dialysate)
 - Arthur MacNeill (Buffalo, NY), Warren Collins (Boston);
Kolff-Brigham dialysis machine, with flat plate dialyser used in the Korean War for AKI
 - First dialysis procedure in the United States performed at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York on 26th Jan

1949       Societe de Pathologie Renale founded; first nephrology society; first president Jean Hamburger; first meeting February 1949, Paris Graham Bull (London/Belfast); principles of conservative care of AKI
1940s, late Nils Alwall (Lund, Sweden); first out-of-hospital dialysis centre        
1950     Richard Lawler (Chicago); first successful deceased donor transplant on a patient with CKD; performed within the body
 - Renal Association founded; UK society of nephrologists; first president Arthur Osman; second nephrology society; first meeting 30th March, London
 - Ada and Harry DeBold; founded the Committee for Nephrosis Research, which would become the National Nephrosis Foundation then later the US' NKF

  - Antonino Pérez-Ara (Havana, Cuba); first description of percutaneous renal biopsy

1951   Arthur Grollman (Dallas); used IPD in dogs

 - René Küss, Charles Dubost (Paris), Marceau Servelle (Strasbourg); first renal transplants in France; and first used the extraperitoneal renal transplantation procedure which is in common use today
  - Rupert Billingham, Peter Medawar (Birmingham); landmark paper on immune tolerance

  Poul Iversen and Claus Brun (Copenhagen); first series of percutaneous renal biopsies

 - Paul Teschan (Walter Reed Army Medical Centre, Washington); using the Kolff-Brighma machine, he established the Renal Insufficiency Centre under the auspices of the US Army Surgical Research Team at the 11th Evacuation Hospital of the 8th Army, in Wonju, Korea; used 72 treatments on 31 soldiers with AKI. Previously 8/10 soldiers with post-traumatic AKI died 
  - Barbara Coleman-Wysocki and John Merrill; first published article by nurse and physician describing the artificial kidney (in AJN)


 - Gordon Murray (Toronto); first successful deceased donor transplant series
 - Louis Michon, Jean Hamburger, Jean Vayse (Paris); first successful living transplant (lived 21 days)  
 - Jean Hamburger probably coined the term 'nephrology'
 - Gertrude Elion, George Hitchings; synthesised 6-mercaptopurine

1954     Joseph Murray, John Hartwell Harrison (surgeons, Boston), John Merrill (physician, Boston); 23th December; first successful living transplant in USA   Robert Kark and Robert Muehrcke (Chicago); refined percutaneous renal biopsy
1955 Bruno Watschinger and Wilhem Kolff; twin coil dialyser invented    - Charles Rob, William James 'Jim' Dempster (St Marys and Hammersmith, London); first deceased donor transplant in UK (unsuccessful)
 - Arthur Nobile; first synthesised Prednisolone
American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO) established

Willard E Goodwin (UCLA); first cutaneous nephrostomy in modern era

1956 William B Graham and Wilhem Kolff (Kolff's “Orange Juice” kidney); first commercial dialysing machine made by Baxter Corporation, 'Baxter/Travenol recirculating U-200A twin coil dialyser'; available for sale on 30th Oct; machine cost $1,000; disposable artificial kidneys cost $53 each        
1956-7 Acute haemodialysis recommenced in the UK; first on 30th Sept 1956 in Leeds General Infirmary by (Frank Parsons, urologist); then Hammersmith, London (Wing Commander Sir Ralph Shackman) and RAF Halton (Group Captain Ralph Jackson, urologist), and Jo Joekes        
1957     Jean Dausett, Rose Payne, D Bernard Amos; discovery of First HLA Antigen, MAC (now known as HLA-A2)  - Società Italiana di Nefrologia founded; first society with nephrology in its name
 - Minerva Nefrologica; first journal devoted to nephrology

 - Leon Jacobson and Eugene Goldwasser (Chicago, USA); kidneys were identified as the major site of EPO production in the adult mammal
 - John Baer, Karl Beyer, James Sprague, and Frederick Novello; formulated the thiazide diuretic chlorothiazide

1958   John Dossetor (Barrie, Ontario); Canada’s first successful kidney transplant between identical twins at the Royal Victoria Hospital, from Nora to Moira Johnson      




 - Morton Maxwell; multihole PD catheter
 - Richard Reuben, Paul Doolan (San Fransisco); soft PVC multihole catheter; first chronic treatment with intermittent PD
 - Sterile peritoneal dialysis fluid became available

 - Gordon Murray (Toronto); first successful non-identical twin transplant
 - Joseph Murray (Boston); first non-identical (fraternal) twin transplant in USA; used sublethal total body irradiation (TBI)
- 'Fred' Peter Raper (Leeds); first successful (8 months) deceased donor transplant in the UK (July); used cyclosphosphamide as immunosuppression

Jean Hamburger (Paris); founded the Société de Néphrologie, as a continuation of the older society, the Société de Pathologie Rénale  
1960s, early       In the USA, an anonymous lay committee, or 'life-and-death committee', was established to decide which patients were worthy of treatment. Patient candidates were judged on their moral value, their position in the community, and their likelihood of continuing existence  
1960  - Belding Scribner, Wayne Quinton and David Dillard (Seattle, USA); AV shunt, making chronic dialysis possible. First shunt inserted on 9th March by David Dillard into Clyde Shields (died of cardiac disease in 1971); then Harvey Gentry (d1987); commencing maintenance HD for ESRD in Seattle - the first long-term dialysis patients, in first longterm unit in USA
 - Richard Stewart, Henry Mahon (Michigan); developed hollow fibre dialyser, which became wildly available in 1960
Fred Boen (Seattle); automated PD machine

 - René Kuss, Marcel Legrain (Paris); first successful living transplant between non related patients in France (January)
 - Michael Woodruff (Edinburgh); first successful living transplant (with twins) in UK (30.10.60)
 - Roy Calne (London); first used 6-mercaptopurine (6-MCP) in dogs
 - John Hopewell (London); first successful living transplant between non-twin siblings (1.11.60). First used 6-MCP in humans.First used Prednisolone in UK
- Willard E Goodwin, Richard Glassock (UCLA); Prednisolone first used in renal transplantation

 - Founding of ISN
 - 'Premier Congrès International de Néphrologie' in Evian and Geneva; first meeting of the ISN; where the word 'nephrology' appeared for the first time at a conference (2-4th September)



 - Fred Kiil (Copenhagen); first cellulose flat plate dialyser; first dialyser that could be reassembled and used without blood pump
 - Stanley Shaldon (London); first chronic HD centre in UK
 - Nose (Japan); home dialysis first described, using a washing machine

1962 Wayne Quinton and Belding Scribner (Seattle, USA); Jan 8th, USA's first out-of-hospital dialysis centre; the Seattle Artificial Kidney Center, later renamed the Northwest Kidney Centers (NKC); at Swedish Hospital (Seattle)   - Roy Calne (London/Cambridge/Boston); Azathioprine introduced
  - First use of tissue matching to select a donor and recipient
1963     Thomas Starzyl (Pittsburgh); first used Prednisolone and Azathioprine from the start of a transplant   Kleinfelder H (Wurzburg, Germany); furosemide, first loop diuretic synthesised; its original tradename 'Lasix' is derived from the phrase 'lasts six (hours)'


 - Stanley Shaldon (London), Jo Eschbach, Belding Scribner (Seattle), John Merrill (Boston); home haemodialysis introduced (partly as a response to hepatitis B outbreaks)
 - Hippocrates Yatzidis (Greece); first described the use of charcoal in a haemoperfusion system; at the first meeting of what became the ERA-EDTA

Russell Palmer, Wayne Quinton (Vancouver, Seattle); designed silicone catheter for chronic PD, providing continuous access into the peritoneum for first time

 - Johannes van Rood/Aad van Leeuwen (Leiden, Netherlands), Paul Terasaki (UCLA); used histocompatability testing (tissue typing using white blood cells) to select the most suitable donor-recipient combinations 
 - Keith Reemtsma (New Orleans); kidney xenotransplant From chimpanzee kidney
 - National Kidney Foundation (NKF); formed from National Nephrosis Foundation
 - Stanley Shaldon (London), David Kerr (Newcastle) and Williamm Drukker (Amsterdam) founded the 'WEDA' (West European dialysis Association) a forerunner of the ERA-EDTA; and their first meeting was on Sept 24th in Amsterdam, with 210 delegates from 16 countries

 - Richard Freeman, John Maher, George Schriener (Washington DC); described complications of HD, including hepatitis B
 - First hepatitis B outbreaks in UK

Raymon Weston, Martin Roberts (Los Angeles); Stylet catheter (Trocath) introduced      
1966 James Brescia, Michael Cimino, Kenneth Appel (New York); internal AV fistula developed Norman Lasker (New Jersey); automated PD machine called the 'Peritoneal Cycler', a gravity-fed system William D Kelly and Richard C Lillehei (Minnesota); first kidney-pancreas transplant on a 28 year olf woman diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes aged 9 years  - American Society of Nephrology (ASN) founded; US society of nephrologists; first president Neal S Bricker
 - First informal meeting of (100) nephrology nurses in US; at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital

John Moorhead (London); UK's first consultant nephrologist appointed
1967  - Lee Henderson (Philadelphia); haemofiltration      First annual meeting of ASN, Los Angeles, 18-19th October  
1968   Henry Tenckhoff (Seattle); the PD catheter that bears his name is based on Palmer and Quinton catheter of 1964  

 - Southeast Organ Procurement Foundation (SEOPF) formed; first organ procurement and distribution  programme
  - UK's National Tissue Typing and Reference Laboratory (NTTRL) established at Southmead Hospital, Bristol

1969     GM Collins (Los Angeles); developed renal transplant preservation solution    

Hillard Festenstein (London); multicentre collaboration in tissue-typing to match kidneys for transplantation

 - Kidney donor cards introduced in the UK
 - Rene Kuss (Paris); founded French Transplantation Society

 - Eric Lawson, Williams DH (Cambridge); calcitriol discovered
 - Eugene Goldwasser and Charles K-H Kung (Chicago, USA); first purified EPO



 - British Transplant Society (BTS); founded by John Hopewell and Leslie Brent. First meeting 12th April 1972 (London)
 - Kidney donor cards introduced in USA
 - Geoffrey Tovey (Bristol); National Organ Matching and Distribution Service (NOMDS) founded, later to become part of UK Transplant Service
 - National Kidney Foundation, nephrologist George Schreiner (Washington, USA), and other physicians were lobbying Congress; leading to the passage of House Resolution 1 in November 1972 and the eventual demise of the 'infamous 'life-and-death' committee
Alan Alfrey (Colorado); dialysis encephalopathy described
1973       Congress passed the bill establishing the Medicare ESRD Program; provided access to treatment for nearly all patients in the USA (as long as they or a family member had paid into the Medicare system)  


Frederick Merkel, John Bergen (Northwestern University), Aaron Bannett (Albert Einstein Medical Center); founded the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS)  
1975     Sirolimus discovered on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) British Patient Kidney Association (BKPA) founded by Elizabeth Ward; first UK kidney patient charity Eva Dubovsky (Birmingham, Alabama, USA); introduced nuclear medicine scans, mainly for hypertension and transplantation
1976   Jack Moncrief and Robert Popovich (Austin, Texas); CAPD described; published in abstract form   UK brain death guidelines facilitate retrieval from heart-beating cadaveric donors

 - Donald Cockcoft, Henry Gault (Newfoundland); prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine
 - Alan Alfrey (Denver); aluminium toxicity as cause of dialysis encephalopathy

1977       SEOPF implements the first computer-based organ matching system, the "United Network for Organ Sharing"  

Dimitrios Oreopolous (Toronto); PVC bags

 - Roy Calne (Cambridge); Ciclosporin introduced
 - A Ting, Peter Morris; showed HLA-DR matching improved graft survival

 - National Kidney Federation (UK Patient Charity) formed; co-ordinating local Kidney Patient Associations (KPAs)
 - First UK Transplant Games were held in Portsmouth; the idea of Consultant Surgeon, Maurice Slapak CBE
Tomas Berl (Denver); calcitriol introduced

Kramer P (Goettingen, German); continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration

Karl Nolph (Missouri); light titanium connector

Kung; first produced mouse monoclonal antibodies against T cell surface receptor antigens using hybridoma technology (including OKT3)

 - UK Transplant Service formed (from NTTRL and NOMDS)
​- PROTON (first UK renal database) introduced by Hugh de Wardener (London), Robert Sells (Liverpool) and Martin Knapp (Nottingham)
Assenat H, Charra B; dialysis-related amyloidosis described
1981    - Umberto Buoncristiani (Perugia); 'flush before fill' Y-system
 - José Diaz-Buxo; CCPD (APD)

Cosimi; OKT3 introduced

UK kidney donor card changed to multi-organ card including kidneys, corneas, heart, liver, and pancreas



 - SEOPF establishes the Kidney Center, the predecessor of the UNOS Organ Center
 - First US Transplant Games in Texas, USA

1984     Kino T (Ibaraki, Japan); Tacrolimus discovered  - US National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) passed
 - The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) separates from SEOPF and is a non-profit member organisation
1985         Lin FK and Jacobs (Chicago); isolated the human erythropoietin gene
1986     James Southard and Folkert Belzer (University of Wisconsin); developed UW preservation solution   Chris Winearls (Oxford); recombinant human erythropoietin effective in HD patients
1987   Zbylut Twardowski (Missouri); PET Kino T (Ibaraki, Japan); Tacrolimus introduced   Jo Eschbach (Seattle); Phase I and II trial of erythropoietin in HD patients
1988       US Renal Data System established  



(UK) Human Organ Transplant (HOT) Act passed; making any commercial dealing in human organs for transplant a criminal offence  
1991       UK Transplant Service becomes Special Health Authority and is renamed United Kingdom Transplant Support Service Authority (UKTSSA)  


NHS Organ Donor Register established
Saulo Klahr (St Louis); Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) published; showed no evidence that low protein diet slows progression of CKD

- Llyod Ratner and Louis Kavoussi (Baltimore, USA); first successful laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy ​

 - Kota Takahashi (Niigata, Japan); Mycophenolate introduced

 - The current name of ERA-EDTA was first used, having been WEDA. EDTA, then EDTA-ERA
​ - Netar Mallick (Manchester) and Terry Feest (Bristol); founded UK's Renal Registry  in April with a two year pilot study
- UK Renal Association 1st Standards Document

1997       UK Renal Association 2nd Standards Document  
1996     Maria Murgia (Houston); Sirolimus introduced  - 'First annual report' of Renal Registry; in March, of the two year pilot; initially with 4 units
 - Netar Mallick, David Kerr and Stewart Cameron; DoH's Renal Review of England and Wales​
1998     Tanabe K (Tokyo); first plasmapharesis for ABO incompatible transplant September. First (first non-pilot) annual report of UK's Renal Registry; 9 units)  
2000     Gorodner V (Illinois, USA); first successful robotic living donor nephrectomy UK Transplant takes over from UKTSSA (July)  
2001       First year when number of living renal transplants exceeds deceased donor transplants in USA  
2002       UK Renal Association 3rd Standards Document  
2003          - Josef Coresh; K/DOQI guidelines re classiification of CKD using eGFR
 - Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) established

 - (UK) Human Tissue Act (HTA) passed
- DoH's National Service Framework for Renal Services

Rinaldo Bellomo (Heidelberg, Australia); RIFLE classification of AKI
2005       NHS Blood and Transplant formed on 1st October; through merger of UK Transplant with the National Blood Service and Bio Products Laboratory  
2007     UK's first living donor paired and alturistic renal transplants (July)

 - UK Renal Registry achieves full coverage
 - Renal Association Clinical Practice Guidelines

KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical          
Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Chronic
Kidney Disease published
2008       UK Transplant part of NHS Blood and Transplant renamed Directorate of Organ Donation & Transplantation  
2009     Mohamad Allaf (Baltimore, USA); donor kidney first removed through vagina